Children in the South did the least hoofing and pedaling, partly because of safety concerns, experts believe.
The issue is important because it’s linked to escalating rates of childhood obesity. Many schools have been cutting back on recess and physical education, observed Sarah Martin, the study’s lead author.
“Kids need to take advantage of the opportunities that do exist for physical activity,” said Martin, a Maine-based evaluation consultant and former researcher with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The article is being published in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Martin did the research when she was at the CDC.
Other studies have found that relatively few kids walk or bike to school. The numbers have dropped as the population has grown while the number of schools has declined and the distance to get to them has grown for many families.
In 1969, about 90 percent of kids who lived within a mile of school walked or rode bikes to get there. In 2004, just 48 percent did that at least one day a week, the new study found.
Separately, federal statistics suggest the numbers are worse, of course, for children who live farther from school. In 1969, 42 percent walked or cycled and in 2001 (the most recent data available for that group), just 16 percent did.
The figures for those living within a mile of school are based on a spring 2004 nationwide, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of families with children ages 9 to 15. More than 7,400 families were surveyed.
The researchers didn’t ask why so many children were driven to school, but possible explanations include parental attitudes about exercise and concerns about safety, Martin said.
Generally, studies have found that less educated families exercise less and have higher rates of obesity. But Martin’s survey found that the children of well-educated parents were more likely to get a ride to school. She said in those families, both parents are likely to have jobs and may believe it’s safer and more expedient for one of them to drive their child to school on their way to work.
Such families likely have more cars, too. Other researchers have found that the number of cars is key to whether kids walk, said Lawrence Frank, a professor of community and regional planning at the University of British Columbia.
“More cars means less likely to walk,” he said.
Also, many suburban and rural areas are built without sidewalks, good crosswalks or other safety features, several experts said.
Older urban communities have the most walking and biking children, at least partly because they were built with pedestrians in mind. But newer communities like many in the South were designed around the car, and may lack continuous sidewalks or safe crosswalks, Frank said.
Research also has shown that the South has the lowest levels of exercise and adult activity. “They don’t view walking to school as very important,” Martin said.
Liz Hansen, 바카라사이트 a Lawrenceville, Ga., mother of a 19-year-old college student, recalled that when her son was young, the family lived just two blocks from his elementary school. But she usually drove him because she worried for his safety.
Later, her son Ryan lived less than a mile from his high school, but he didn’t like to walk or even ride the bus. “It was uncool,” she said.
Montreal lawyer Anlac Nguyen filed the motion in Quebec Superior Court on behalf of seven Canadians and two natives of the Czech Republic. Eight were passengers on the flight with Andrew Speaker and the ninth is a brother and roommate of one of the passengers.
Speaker, a 31-year-old Atlanta personal injuries attorney, was in Europe when he learned tests showed he had an extremely drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis known as XDR-TB.
Despite warnings from health officials not to board another international flight, Speaker took a Czech state-run CSA jetliner to Montreal in early May as part of his return trip home. He subsequently became the first American quarantined by the federal government since 1963, and is currently undergoing treatment under isolation in a Denver hospital.
Health officials now say Speaker’s strain of TB is not the extremely drug resistant kind but a more treatable, multi-drug-resistant form of the disease. They say tests so far indicate his risk of spreading the infection are low.
“They do not have tuberculosis, but nobody can say that they won’t have tuberculosis either,” Nguyen said of his clients. “And that will not be known, not now, not next year, but for many years in the future, so the pain and suffering that the people have gone through are real. They continue to suffer now because of the uncertainty.”
While in Rome, Speaker said he was advised by a CDC official that test results indicated he had extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or XDR-TB, 온라인카지노 and should either go into isolation at an Italian hospital or pay for a private air ambulance to return to the U.S.
Speaker is being treated in isolation at the National Jewish Medical and Research Center in Denver. Contacted by telephone, Speaker said he has not hired an attorney. He said he is concentrating on his treatment and will worry about any legal ramifications when he returns to his home in Atlanta.
“Honestly, right now, I’m going to have all that kind of stuff to think about when I get home,” he said. “Right now, I want to worry about my treatment and get home. I do hope that no one contracted this.”
Speaker’s father Ted – a lawyer who founded the Atlanta firm where his son works – said they would wait until the lawsuit is served before responding.
“When they do serve him, we will be replying to it,” said Ted Speaker, who added that he was not surprised by the lawsuit.
Nassim Tabri sat one row in front of Speaker. Tabri, a 26-year-old Montreal graduate student, found out about his possible exposure when a reporter called him after news of the incident broke last month.
He is seeking $134,900 – the highest amount sought among the nine plaintiffs, mostly for pain, suffering and “loss of opportunities”.
“At the very first moment that I found out, I was obviously very stressed, very shocked,” said Tabri, who slept through most of the flight. “I’m still very stressed out about it. He deliberately got on this plane, endangered our lives and this is very selfish and reckless behavior that deserves to be punished.”
Nguyen said one of the plaintiffs, a 72-year-old man, tested positive for tuberculosis in an initial skin test, but it was unclear if it was related to contact with Speaker.
Health experts caution that TB skin tests can yield false-positive results and that further tests are required.
The man now lives in a separate room from his wife, according to the motion.
Public Health Agency of Canada spokesman Alain Desroches said “at this point there is no evidence that any one on the flight contracted TB from Andrew Speaker.”
Tabri said he had a negative test for tuberculosis, which he said meant only that he had not been exposed to the disease prior to his contact with Speaker. Tabri said that he anxiously awaits results of further tests within a month.
“His life has gone through the greatest turmoil,” Nguyen said. “He has had to change all his academic plans.”
Nguyen said he expects Speaker will be served by a bailiff within the next five to 10 days.By Sean Farrell
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