Arctic Circle sees ‘maximum-ever’ recorded temperatures

temperatures within the arctic circle are in all likelihood to have hit an all-time file on saturday, accomplishing a scorching 38c (100f) in verkhoyansk, a siberian city.

the record nevertheless desires to be tested, but it appears to were 18c better than the common most day by day temperature in june.

hot summer climate isn’t always uncommon within the arctic circle, however recent months have visible abnormally high temperatures.

the arctic is believed to be warming two times as fast as the global average.

verkhoyansk, domestic to about 1,three hundred human beings, sits simply in the arctic circle, in far flung siberia. it has an excessive weather with temperatures plunging in january to a mean maximum of -42c and then surging in june to 20c.

however a chronic heatwave this yr in the arctic circle has concerned meteorologists. in march, april and may, the copernicus weather trade carrier said that the average temperature changed into round 10c above ordinary.



Impact on crime

Evidence quality 3


How it works

cog fullEvidence quality 3


Where it works

where fullEvidence quality 4


How to do it

what fullEvidence quality 2


What it costs

cost fullEvidence quality 0

Economic cost

* This is based on the strongest scores from a number of systematic reviews

What is the focus of the intervention?

​Closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras serve many functions and are used in both public and private settings. CCTV is viewed as a technique of “formal surveillance” and as such it might enhance or take the place of security personnel. Cameras can be used to aid crime prevention, the detection of offenders, and crowd control or public order scenarios. The focus of this overview is on the prevention of personal and property crime.​​​​​

This narrative is primarily based on one systematic review covering 41 studies. A second review provided additional evidence in relation to the mechanisms and moderator sections below.


How effective is it?

Overall, the evidence suggests that CCTV c​​an reduce crime. There are however, some important considerations as discussed below.

In looking at crime type specifically, the most ​​​significant reductions were in vehicle crime and property crime and there was no evidence of an effect on violent crime.

Review 1 estimated that overall, for every 100 crimes, an average of 16 crimes were prevented with CCTV (based on 41 studies) and specifically for vehicle crime, for every 100 crimes, an average of 26 crimes we​​re prevented (based on 22 studies). There was no evidence of a backfire effect (where crime increases) across the evaluations reviewed.  ​

How strong is the evidence?

​This evidence is taken from a systematic review covering 41 studies, which demonstrated a high quality design in terms of having a transparent and well-designed search strategy, featuring a valid statistical analysis, sufficiently assessing the risk of bias in the analysis and considering the validity of the way outcomes are measured and/or combined. The review did not quantify an overall effect for unanticipated outcomes such as displacement caused by the intervention or conduct a separate analysis for distinct evaluation research designs.​​


How does it work?

​In both reviews 1 and 2 the authors note that CCTV might reduce crime by: a) deterring criminals by increasing their perception of the risk of getting caught; b) increasing the actual risk of getting caught; c) encouraging the public use of an area thus affecting the criminals’ perceptions of risk (by increasing informal surveillance by the public); d) encouraging potential victims to take additional precautions; e) signalling improvements in the area to the public which encourages community pride; f) supporti​​ng the effective deployment of security staff to incidents more effectively.

Review 2 notes t​​hat possible increases in crime could occur if; a) the police became overly reliant on the cameras and reduced their own vigilance, or b) due to the presence of cameras fewer people used the area, which reduced levels of natural surveillance.

However, none of these potential mechanisms are empirically tested and the authors note that this should be done. Review 2 reported that CCT​V did not encourage or discourage use of the area, which suggested no change in natural surveillance.​


In which contexts does it work best?

There is good evidence tha​​t CCTV effectiveness varies considerably by context.

In the reviewe​​d studies (review 1), for every 100 crimes:

An averag​e of 51 crimes were prevented within a car park context (based on 6 studies).

​An average of 19 cri​mes were prevented within a UK-based context (based on 34 studies).

The effect of the following were non-significant; city and town centres (20 studies); public housing (8 studies); public transport (4 studies); non-UK studies (7 studies).
CCTV, therefore, appears most effective in a car park setting, and appears to be more effective in the UK than the other locations tested (largely the USA). Further evidence (review 2) suggests that CCTV can also be effective in the outskirts (suburbs) of a city (preventing 31 crimes for every 100).


What can be said about implementing this initiative?

​The reviews (1 and 2) note that the types of camera tested in the studies varied (e.g. pan, tilt, zoom cameras). The technical specification of cameras (e.g. their positioning or ability record at night) should be considered during implementation. Most of the successful CCTV systems involved active monitoring of live footage from the cameras, typically by security personnel (i.e. not the police). The effective operation ​of the control room is therefore an important factor. Success also appears to be related to stronger public support, less political resistance and better funding. Public support can vary by context – for example, cameras attract more support in car parks. Implementation should be based on a careful analysis of the local crime problem – projects should have clear objectives and project managers with relevant knowledge should communicate with police.

Review 2 ​reported on the degree of coverage of the cameras. Overall, the effectiveness of a scheme was correlated (r= 0.63, p=0.021) with how much of an area the​ cameras covered. This suggests that having a high degree of coverage of the cameras is an important factor in gaining successful outcomes.

CCTV also appeared more successful w​​hen combined with other interventions (improved lighting, fencing, better parking payment schemes, security personnel, youth inclusion). For example, in review 2, the authors looked at the impact of the implementation of CCTV where other schemes were operating. The schemes that showed the largest desirable effects of CCTV on crime also included improvements in lighting.​


How much might it cost?

​There is no information on costs of CCTV in either review but the authors of review 1 highlight some sources of data regarding the costs of implementation: a) One study estimated that more than £250 million (approximately $500 million) of public money was spent on CCTV over the 10-year period of 1992 to 2002 in the UK; b) according to another report, between 1999 and 2001 alone the B​ritish government made available £170 million (approximately $340 million) for “CCTV schemes in town and city centres, car parks, crime hot-spots and residential areas”; c) Estimates from the USA, suggest that figures range from $25 million spent on cameras in buses and subway stations in New York City, to $5 million spent in Chicago on a 2,000- camera system throughout the city centre, to more than $10 million spent in Baltimore.​

The reviews also note that re-deployable CCTV cameras – that can be move​d easily between different locations – might be a less costly option. Information on the monetary costs or benefits of intervention are not discussed.​

General considerations

  • ​​The authors note that the evaluations included in their reviews varied in important ways including the duration of the follow-up periods (e.g. those in the UK tended to ha​​​​ve longer follow-up).

  • Not all crime is reported to​ the police. Thus, CCTV cameras may identify crimes that would otherwise go unreported. Review 2 reported an increase in crime reporting rates in some intervention areas.

  • Implementers ​should consider possible threats to privacy and civil liberties.

  • Displacement of crime or di​ffusion of benefits to neighbouring areas are possibilities and should be considered.

  • Cost information for ​CCTV is difficult to determine – as technologies change costs can increase or decrease, and costs will vary by location and the characteristics of the cameras.

  • This overview do​​es not address the effectiveness of CCTV as an aid in the detection of crime, deployment of resources or control of public order, which in certain cases can be significant.

  • This review has ​highlighted some gaps in the research base – specifically more is needed to directly test the mechanisms underlying CCTV – i.e. how does it work.


​There is evidence that CCTV modestly reduces crime overall. There is also strong evidence that it is particularly effective in reducing crime in car parks. In looking at crime type specifically, the most significant reductions were for vehicle crime and there was no evidence of an effect on violent crime. Implementing CCTV with wider coverage, and in combination with other interventions, such as street lighting, can increase effectiveness. This overview does not consider the effect of CCTV on detection, public order or other uses.​​

Ratings for Individual Reviews

Review 1

How it works

cog fullEvidence quality 3


Where it works

where fullEvidence quality 4


How to do it

what fullEvidence quality 2


What it costs

cost fullEvidence quality 0

Economic cost

Review 2

How it works

cog fullEvidence quality 3


Where it works

where fullEvidence quality 3


How to do it

what fullEvidence quality 2


What it costs

cost emptyEvidence quality 0

Economic cost


Review 1: Welsh, Brandon C. and Farrington, David P. (2009) ‘Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’, Justice Quarterly, 26: 4, 716 — 745

Review 2: Farrington David P, Gill Martin, Waples, Sam J and Argomaniz, Javier (2007) The effects of closed-circuit television on crime: Meta-analysis of an English national quasi multi-site evaluation. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3, 21-38 ​

This narrative was prepared by UCL Jill Dando Institute and was co-funded by the College of Policing and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).  ESRC Grant title: ‘University Consortium for Evidence-Based Crime Reduction’.  Grant Ref: ES/L007223/1.

Uploaded on 19/02/15



Top 10 Defining Moments of the 2000s

Having reached the end of the first decade of the new millennium, it’s time to look back at all the things that helped shape the cultural heritage of our ever globalizing society. It seems amazing that it was nearly ten years ago when the entire world rang in the new millennium with style. From Tokyo to London, New York to Sydney, Rio De Janeiro to Cairo, the fireworks and celebrations were extraordinary. We’ve come a long way since. Did anyone think they would be holding a powerful phone in their pocket and take that power for granted today, ten years ago? Did anyone really grasp the ability for computers and the internet to permeate every aspect of our day to day lives? And did anyone think the Rolling Stones would still be touring? Well, here are the ten moments, ideas, and innovations which defined the decade. The list is broken into ten different categories, with at least one runner-up listed for each.

Harry Potter

Runners-up: The Da Vinci Code, Oprah’s book club.

In 1997 an unknown writer named Joanne Rowling finally got her break upon the publication of a novel she had been working on for seven years, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. What followed was nothing short of mania. The series, with seven books planned from the start, became a global phenomenon. By the time the final book was published in 2007, the Harry Potter series had turned Rowling into a billionaire, one of the runners-up for Time’s “Person of the Year”, and easily the most influential children’s writer of her era. An entire generation grew up along with Harry, Ron, and Hermione, reading thousands of pages in a time where most children are watching TV. Harry Potter became famous for its cult-like following, with millions of kids everywhere waiting outside bookstores for midnight parties on release dates. Over 400 million copies of the books have been translated into 67 different languages. Along with tie-in merchandise and movie deals, the franchise is worth an estimated £15 billion. Many groups attempted to ban the books, arguing that Rowling was brain washing kids into practicing magic and believing in the occult. Most of their criticism has been ignored, especially by the college students playing quidditch matches on campus, and Oxford English Dictionary, who in 2003 entered “muggle” into its lexicon.


Runners-up: Lost, The Sopranos, Family Guy.

Perhaps the most annoying of all entries on this list, reality TV has changed the landscape of television over the past decade. While different shows can fit the general description of reality TV, it really began with in the UK with Pop Idol in 2001. The winner of the first season was Will Young, who has had a modest career since. American Idol took off a year later, and every week gains more votes than the US presidential election. Other reality TV shows took off at the same time and have had a huge effect on television, such as, Survivor, Big Brother, The Amazing Race, and The Real World. Jeff Zucker, the Chief Executive of a rival network remarked that, “I think Idol is the most impactful show in the history of television”.


Runners-up: Hotel Rwanda, Brokeback Mountain.

Danny Boyle created a masterpiece in 2008 with his film Slumdog Millionaire. Based on the book “Q&A” by Vikas Swarup, the movie tells the tale of an impoverished young man and his chance to make millions on the Indian version of “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?” He answers question after question based on chance encounters throughout his life, such as how he knows who is on a US 100 dollar bill. We learn that the young man, played by Dev Patel, is not interested in the money, but in finding his lost girlfriend. Slumdog Millionaire took the world by storm, grossing $377 million. It also won 8 Academy Awards, including Best Picture. It has been acclaimed as being a small representative of the future of film, because of its international cast, crew, and audience. Joe Morgenstern called it the “world’s first globalized masterpiece”.


Runners-up: Spain Wins Euro 2008, Zinedine Zidane’s Headbutt, 2008 New York Giants.

Down three games to zero against their fiercest rival, the New York Yankees, in the American League Championship Series, the Red Sox were down to their final inning when the magic began. Even with superstar closer Mariano Rivera on the mound, the Red Sox were not going to be denied. They scored the tying run, and eventually won the game in the 12th inning. Game 5 went to 14 innings, and game 6 was decided by just two runs. In game 7 however, the Red Sox cut the Yankees loose with a 7 run victory to become the first team to ever come back from a 3-0 series deficit and win. But, their job was not done yet. The Red Sox had gone 86 years without a World Series title, and were not going to go home empty handed. In fact, they swept the Cardinals in 4 games to win the championship, in what analysts would later call “the greatest story baseball ever told”.


Runners-up: Janet Jackson’s Super Bowl Show, Live 8, Napster, death of Michael Jackson

Steve Jobs didn’t invent the mp3 player, but he did revolutionize it. In October of 2001, Apple introduced the world to the iPod, and perhaps they didn’t even realize what they were doing. Previously, mp3 players were unpopular because they were fragile, had short battery life, or were simply not sexy and fashionable. Apple saw the flaws of these products and attempted to fix them all. Eight years later, it’s hard to find a teenager or young adult without an iPod. Over 220,000,000 iPods have been sold throughout the world, making them the highest selling digital audio player. It has also changed the music industry itself. Any small musician, looking to make it big, can get his music in the iTunes store, and theoretically propel himself to stardom. Interestingly, there are studies being done that argue iPods are making kids more anti-social, because they can turn on their music instead of socializing. Even if you “are a PC”, you must admit that Apple was doing something right when they introduced the iPod.


Runners-up: HD TV, high speed internet, Wikipedia.

It was called just a fad, but others insist that social networking sites have become one of the biggest shifts in human interaction since the invention of the telephone. Social media has overtaken pornography as the #1 activity on the internet. Consider that it took the radio 38 years to reach 50 million users, but it took facebook less than 9 months to reach 100 million users. Twitter played a pivotal role in the 2009 Iranian elections, and yet all the popular news feeds were over taken on the day Michael Jackson died. With nearly 93% of college students using facebook or another form of social networking, these sites are already having a massive effect on human interaction. Social networking is fundamentally changing the way the world communicates.

Content Euro

Runners-up: Dotcom bust, real estate collapse.

The second most widely used currency in the world was formally introduced in 2002. The euro, primarily used by members of the European Union, is also used by millions of people on other continents. 16 members of the EU are obliged to adopt the euro eventually, with the United Kingdom and Denmark exempt. Many African counties have also adopted it unofficially and some countries have negotiated usage. There are now 23 countries using currencies directly pegged to the euro. Behind the US dollar, the euro has become the second largest reserve currency and the euro also has the more value in circulation than any other currency. With close to 500 million people worldwide using the euro, its use and expanding use will help shape our future and hopefully lead us into a stage of macroeconomic stability.


Runners-up: Darfur Genocide, Benazir Bhutto assassination, London train bombings.

On September 11, 2001, four airplanes in the United States were hijacked by Muslim extremists and crashed into various locations. Two were crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, one was flown into the Pentagon Building in Washington DC, and in the fourth plane, civilians overtook the terrorists and the plane crashed into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Nearly three thousand people were killed in the attacks. Al-Qaeda, a terrorist group centered in the Middle East, and its leader Osama Bin Laden were blamed for the attack. The New York Stock Exchange, which makes its home only blocks away from the WTC, had its largest one day drop in history when it re-opened. Following the attack, President George W. Bush started his War on Terror, which has led to major conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The long term effects of the attacks are still being felt today, and will continue to shape the world for years to come.


Runners-up: Hurricane Katrina, Victorian Bushfire, Climate Change

The second largest recorded earthquake in history occurred on December 26, 2005, in the middle of the Indian Ocean. The resulting tsunami killed nearly 230,000 people and displaced over one million. Deaths occurred in fourteen different countries, and Indonesia suffered the worst fatalities. Tourists, mostly from Europe, were also killed during this peak travel time, with over 9,000 deaths. The tsunami is believed to have been the deadliest natural disaster since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. In the aftermath, entire cities had been destroyed. Rural areas had been completely wiped out. The rest of the world responded with relief aid estimated at over ten billion US dollars. Despite the efforts, the countries most affected are still in the process of rebuilding, and many may never be the same.

Large 080604 Ap Obama-1

Runners-up: 2000 Bush/Gore Florida election, 2009 Iranian Elections.

In a nation still bearing the scars of its Jim Crow past, the people of the United States made a huge move toward true racial equality in 2008 by electing Barack Obama, the nation’s first black president. President Obama won the Electoral College by a staggering 192 votes over his opponent Senator John McCain. The triumph of “change” was approved all around the world. An international poll showed an average of 49% worldwide in favor of Obama, while McCain only garnered 12%. President Obama had some strong ideas and plans for the future, and only time will tell if he can truly come through with them.

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Update: March 30, 2020
After much thoughtful discussion, the American Society for Microbiology Board of Directors has made the difficult decision to cancel ASM Microbe 2020, scheduled for June 18-22, 2020, in Chicago, Ill.

Full Statement ASM Resources

Future ASM Microbe Dates
Plan ahead to make sure you don’t miss an ASM Microbe meeting!

ASM Microbe 2022 | June 9–13, 2022 • Washington, D.C.
ASM Microbe 2023 | June 15–19, 2023 • Houston, Texas 
ASM Microbe 2024 | June 13–17, 2024 • Atlanta, Ga.
ASM Microbe 2025 | June 19–23, 2025 • Los Angeles, Calif.



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